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The aim of the ANNETTE project is to consolidate existing achievements and to tackle the challenges in ensuring a qualified nuclear workforce is available to support future nuclear energy, decommissioning and waste management requirements.
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Bentonite is a key component in many geological repositories. The objective of the BEACON project is to develop and test the tools necessary for assessment of the hydro-mechanical evolution of an installed bentonite barrier and its resulting performance.
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The BELBaR project aimed to increase knowledge of the processes that control clay colloid stability, generation and ability to transport radionuclides. The overall purpose of the project was to suggest a treatment of the issues in long-term safety assessment.
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The BioMoSA project, co-ordinated by the GSF Research Center for Environment and Health, Germany, aimed to improve the scientific basis for the application of biosphere models in the area of long-term safety studies of nuclear waste disposals. The results from the work reduced the uncertainty of the dose assessment to population groups far in the future, and increased the transparency of biosphere modelling in long-term safety studies. The project helped to maintain and enhance public confidence in the results of the assessment of potential radiological impact to members of future hypothetical groups. Furthermore, the outcome of the project will provide safety assessors and regulatory bodies with guidelines for performance assessments of repository systems.
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The BORIS Project used data and samples from the Russian borehole injection sites for liquid radioactive waste at Krasnoyarsk-26 (now Zheleznogorsk) and Tomsk-7 (now Seversk) to further the understanding of the chemical behaviour and migration of radionuclides in the geological environment. At these sites, the migration behaviour of many radionuclides, and the effectiveness of clay layers in isolating radionuclides was studied in a natural groundwater system at repository depths, with the sites providing a unique opportunity to study the migration of radionuclides under in situ geosphere conditions. The project that had been in operation from the 1960s for a period of over 40 years amassed large volumes of data, much of it in hardcopy/paper form, on the geology and hydrogeology of the two sites. Through collaboration between Russia and Western Europe, the data in its entirety was archived to ensure its preservation.
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The five-year long CARBOWASTE programme focused on the development of guidelines to support the retrieval, treatment and disposal of irradiated graphite. Research undertaken as part of this project led to the development of techniques for separating the coated particles from the moderator graphite of high-temperature reactor fuel as well as the identification of thermal, chemical or microbiological treatments that can get rid of a significant proportion of the contamination. Overall, it was concluded that irradiated graphite waste can be safely disposed of in a wide range of disposal systems.
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The CAST project (CArbon-14 Source Term) aimed to develop understanding of the potential release mechanisms of carbon-14 from radioactive waste materials under conditions relevant to waste packaging and disposal in underground geological disposal facilities.
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Cement-based materials are key components in repository barrier systems. To improve the available knowledge base, the Cebama project aimed to provide insight on general processes and phenomena that can be easily transferred to different applications and projects.
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The CHANCE project aims to establish a comprehensive understanding of current characterisation methods and quality control schemes for conditioned radioactive waste in Europe. Furthermore, CHANCE will develop, test and validate already-identified and novel techniques in order to improve the characterisation of conditioned radioactive waste.
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DISCO aims to fill the gap of knowledge on spent fuel dissolution arising from the development and use of novel types of fuel (Cr-doped and MOX). The project aims to enhance understanding of spent fuel matrix dissolution under conditions representative of failed containers in reducing repository environments and to assess whether novel types of fuel behave like the conventional ones.
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DOPAS aimed to improve knowledge of the industrial feasibility of plugs and seals for geological disposal facilities. It focused on the measurement of their characteristics, the control of their behaviour over time in repository conditions and their hydraulic performance.
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First-Nuclides aimed to improve the understanding of the fast / instantly released radionuclides from disposed high burn-up UO2 spent nuclear fuel. The outcome of the project is relevant for all types of host rocks in Europe.
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Long-term radioactive waste management usually considers final disposal in a deep geological repository. This includes an engineered barrier system working in conjunction with the surrounding host rocks to minimise migration of radioactivity. As the repository system evolves, gases may be produced, such as hydrogen from the corrosion of metals and from the radiolysis of water, and radon from the radioactive decay of some of the waste. If present, biodegradable wastes can also produce carbon dioxide and methane. Understanding how these gases move in a repository setting is a topic identified for further study. The FORGE project, which ran from February 2009 to September 2013, studied key gas migration issues in repository performance assessment.
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Establishing a European Union funded Joint Programme is a step change in European collaboration towards safe radioactive waste disposal. The goal of the JOPRAD project was to prepare the conditions for the establishment of a Joint Programme on Radioactive Waste Disposal in 2018.
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LUCOEX was a four-year project aimed at demonstrating in situ the technical feasibility for safe and reliable construction, manufacturing, disposal and repository sealing methods. LUCOEX examined four repository concepts – horizontal disposal of waste packages in Opalinus Clay; horizontal disposal of waste packages in Callovo-Oxfordian clay; horizontal disposal of waste packages in crystalline hard rock; and vertical disposal of waste packages in crystalline hard rock.
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European Geosciences Union 2018


The MICADO project was established to assess the uncertainties in models that describe the dissolution processes of spent nuclear fuels in a disposal repository for geological time periods. The overall objective of the project was to establish whether international research had provided sufficiently reliable models to allow safety questions over disposal of spent fuels to be answered.
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MIND was a unique multidisciplinary project targeting the key technical issues involving microbial processes that must be addressed to facilitate safe implementation of planned geological disposal projects in the EU.
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MoDeRn was a four year collaborative research project addressing how repository monitoring can contribute to the technical safety strategy and the implementation of geological disposal for long-lived radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, as well as contributing to public understanding of and confidence in repository behaviour.
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Monitoring can play an important role in enabling waste management organisations to work towards the safe and accepted implementation of geological disposal. The objective of the Modern2020 project was to provide the means for developing and implementing an effective and efficient repository operational monitoring programme.
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The PAMINA project (Performance Assessment Methodologies in Application to Guide the Development of the Safety Case) aimed to improve and develop a common understanding of integrated performance assessment (PA) methodologies for disposal concepts for spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes in a range of geological environments. It was part of the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission. It brought together 25 organisations from ten European countries and one EC Joint Research Centre to improve and harmonise the methodologies and tools for demonstrating the safety of deep geological disposal.
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PEBS aimed to evaluate the sealing and performance of the engineered barrier with time. The project involved experimentation and modelling, with consideration of the potential impacts on long-term safety functions.
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The objective of PLATENSO was to provide a proposal towards establishing the legal base for a European Entity on Socio-Economic matters linked to nuclear technology and to develop recommendations for research strategies in PLATENSO countries. Through this, the capabilities of research institutes in Central and Eastern European countries to take part in EU research with respect to governance, social and societal aspects was enhanced.
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ReCosy was a four-year collaborative project under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) involving key European Research Institutes and Universities from 13 EURATOM signatory states, Russia and one European Joint Research Centre. The main objectives of ReCosy were to build a sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and to provide tools to apply the result to Performance Assessment/Safety Case.
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The REDUPP project used laboratory studies to investigate the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel under repository conditions.
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The IGD-TP secretariat was established to manage the day to day running of the platform and support the executive group.
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The IGD-TP secretariat was renewed for phase 2 to further support the work of the technical platform. This continued funding aimed to deepen collaboration and knowledge exchange between the waste management organisations and other stakeholders.
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The co-ordination and support action SITEX-II was initiated in 2015 within the EC programme Horizon 2020 with a view to further developing the independent Expertise Function network in the field of deep geological disposal safety.
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SITEX logo


SITEX was a two-year project that aimed to establish and develop expertise among technical safety experts, and through this, support independent regulatory reviews of geological disposal safety at national levels. Attention was also paid to harmonising the policies and programmes among regulatory authorities, technical support organisations and waste management organisations.
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The SKIN Project was a 3-year collaborative project under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). It intended to assess the effect of surface properties on apparent solubility, as well as the kinetics of incorporation of radionuclides in the structure of a solid phase, and the associated reaction mechanisms for various solids in a systematic manner using isotope exchange under close-to-equilibrium conditions.
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Deployment of thermal treatment in an optimised waste management life-cycle can provide significant volume reduction, waste passivation and organics destruction, with benefits for waste storage and safety cases for geological disposal. The THERAMIN project aims to provide an EU-wide strategic review and assessment of the value of thermal technologies applicable to a broad range of waste streams.
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The TIMODAZ project was a four-year project investigating the thermal impact on the damaged zone around a radioactive waste disposal facility in clay host rocks.
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