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ACED

ACED is an RD&D Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It takes a multiscale approach and uses process integration to improve long-term modelling and assessments.
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ACSEPT

ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation) was a four and a half year EU-funded research project focused on the development of actinide partitioning technologies for spent nuclear fuels. The developed partitioning methods are ultimately intended to form part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle which incorporates the transmutation of actinides.
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ANNETTE

The aim of the ANNETTE project was to consolidate existing achievements and to tackle the challenges in ensuring a qualified nuclear workforce is available to support future nuclear energy, decommissioning and waste management requirements. The project delivered a number of reports exploring the needs of the sector and facilitated a number of networking events and the production of learning materials.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

ARGONA

The ARGONA (Arenas for Risk GOverNAnce) project was a three year EU-funded research project started in 2006 which explored application of the concepts of public participation and transparency in nuclear waste management programmes.  The project included both theoretical and applied aspects and delivered a number of observations and recommendations on the role of participation and transparency in the arena of radioactive waste management.
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BEACON

Bentonite is a key component in many geological repositories. The objective of the BEACON project is to develop and test the tools necessary for assessment of the hydro-mechanical evolution of an installed bentonite barrier and its resulting performance.
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BELBaR

The BELBaR project aimed to increase knowledge of the processes that control clay colloid stability, generation and ability to transport radionuclides. The overall purpose of the project was to suggest a treatment of the issues in long-term safety assessment.
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BIOCLIM

The BIOCLIM project aimed to provide a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible impacts of long-term climate change on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep geological formations.
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BIOMOSA

The BioMoSA project, co-ordinated by the GSF Research Center for Environment and Health, Germany, aimed to improve the scientific basis for the application of biosphere models in the area of long-term safety studies of nuclear waste disposals. The results from the work reduced the uncertainty of the dose assessment to population groups far in the future, and increased the transparency of biosphere modelling in long-term safety studies. The project helped to maintain and enhance public confidence in the results of the assessment of potential radiological impact to members of future hypothetical groups. Furthermore, the outcome of the project will provide safety assessors and regulatory bodies with guidelines for performance assessments of repository systems.
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BORIS

The BORIS Project used data and samples from the Russian borehole injection sites for liquid radioactive waste at Krasnoyarsk-26 (now Zheleznogorsk) and Tomsk-7 (now Seversk) to further the understanding of the chemical behaviour and migration of radionuclides in the geological environment. At these sites, the migration behaviour of many radionuclides, and the effectiveness of clay layers in isolating radionuclides was studied in a natural groundwater system at repository depths, with the sites providing a unique opportunity to study the migration of radionuclides under in situ geosphere conditions. The project that had been in operation from the 1960s for a period of over 40 years amassed large volumes of data, much of it in hardcopy/paper form, on the geology and hydrogeology of the two sites. Through collaboration between Russia and Western Europe, the data in its entirety was archived to ensure its preservation.
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CARBOWASTE logo

CARBOWASTE

The five-year long CARBOWASTE programme focused on the development of guidelines to support the retrieval, treatment and disposal of irradiated graphite. Research undertaken as part of this project led to the development of techniques for separating the coated particles from the moderator graphite of high-temperature reactor fuel as well as the identification of thermal, chemical or microbiological treatments that can get rid of a significant proportion of the contamination. Overall, it was concluded that irradiated graphite waste can be safely disposed of in a wide range of disposal systems.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

CARD

The EC CARD (Co-ordination Action on Research, Development and demonstration (RD&D) priorities and strategies for geological disposal) project was undertaken to assess the feasibility of a technology platform that would provide a European framework for networking and co-operation in the field of RD&D for geological disposal of radioactive waste in the EU. The results and recommendations of the CARD project lead directly to the production of the 2009 Vision Document and the launch of the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP).
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cast

CAST

The CAST project (CArbon-14 Source Term) aimed to develop understanding of the potential release mechanisms of carbon-14 from radioactive waste materials under conditions relevant to waste packaging and disposal in underground geological disposal facilities.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

CATCLAY

The four-year long CATCLAY project aimed to improve models of radioactive waste disposed of within geological deposits. By undertaking modelling and controlled experiments that mimicked the behaviour and movements of radioactive atoms, a new model of radioactive cation diffusion through clayrock was developed and validated. The improved understanding of cation diffusion gained over the project has helped enhance the safety and effectiveness of radioactive waste management.
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CEBAMA

Cement-based materials are key components in repository barrier systems. To improve the available knowledge base, the Cebama project aimed to provide insight on general processes and phenomena that can be easily transferred to different applications and projects.
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chance

CHANCE

The CHANCE project aims to establish a comprehensive understanding of current characterisation methods and quality control schemes for conditioned radioactive waste in Europe. Furthermore, CHANCE will develop, test and validate already-identified and novel techniques in order to improve the characterisation of conditioned radioactive waste.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

CND

The Coordination Network on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations (CND) was a project to support the formation and operation of a network of organisations with the same name.  The purpose of the network was to further EU cooperation and capability in the field of nuclear decommissioning.
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CORI

CORI is an RD&D Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to improve understanding of the role of organics (either naturally occurring or introduced by the wastes) and their influence on radionuclide migration in cement-based environments.
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COWAM 2

The COWAM 2 project was a three year research project focused on improving the governance of national radioactive waste management programmes, building on the findings of the first COWAM project.  Governance in this context encompasses the role of organisations and formal instruments (e.g. national governments, WMOs), as well as the role of local communities and public perception as co-actors in the decision-making process. The project provided practical recommendations for the design and implementation of a “robust” decision-making process in radioactive waste governance.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

COWAM In Practice

COWAM In Practice was the third and final project in the Community Waste Management (COWAM) series of projects.  The COWAM project series was focused on developing a model for the inclusive governance of Radioactive Waste Management (RWM).  COWAM In Practice aimed to put into practice the results of the previous COWAM II project, and provided a framework for stakeholders in RWM to cooperate on an equal footing to identify and investigate important issues to them in the governance of RWM in their countries.  The project delivered guidance to the EU for the governance of RWM based on experience gained from this process.
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CROCK

CROCK was a two-and-a-half-year project that aimed to develop a methodology for decreasing the uncertainty in the long-term prediction of radionuclide migration in crystalline rocks. Work included sorption experiments on rock samples, including specially collected non-oxidised samples, and the development of transport simulations and models. Overall CROCK provided better understanding of key process of radionuclide migration and eliminated or reduced a number of uncertainties related to performance assessment.
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DISCO

DisCo aimed to fill the gap of knowledge on spent fuel dissolution arising from the development and use of novel types of fuel (Cr-doped and MOX). The project successfully determined that there is no significant difference in dissolution behaviour between the studied novel fuels and conventional uranium dioxide fuels. The project also enhanced understanding of spent fuel matrix dissolution under repository conditions including the development of a number of chemical models.
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DONUT

DONUT is an RD&D Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to improve understanding of the upscaling THMC modelling for coupled hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in time and space.
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DOPAS

DOPAS aimed to improve knowledge of the industrial feasibility of plugs and seals for geological disposal facilities. It focused on the measurement of their characteristics, the control of their behaviour over time in repository conditions and their hydraulic performance.
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ERICA

The ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and management) project was a three year project to provide an integrated approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising radiation.
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ESDRED

The Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs (ESDRED) project was a joint research and development effort by major national radioactive waste management agencies and research organisations.  The main focus was on demonstrating, at an industrial scale, a number of activities related to the construction, operation and closure of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste.
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EURAD

EURAD aims to implement a joint Strategic Programme of research and knowledge management activities at the European level, bringing together and complementing EU Member State programmes in order to ensure cutting-edge knowledge creation and preservation in view of delivering safe, sustainable and publicly acceptable solutions for the management of radioactive waste across Europe now and in the future. It promotes more effective and efficient public RD&D funding in Europe, and a deepening of research-cooperation between Member States.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

EUROPART

EUROPART (EUROpean research program for the PARTitioning of minor actinides and some long-lived fission products from high active wastes issuing from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels) was a four year joint European research project focused on developing methods for partitioning minor actinides (i.e. Np, Am, Cm) and some fission products from nuclear fuels, and addressing related challenges.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

EUROTRANS

EUROTRANS (EUROpean research Programme for the TRANSmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system) was a programme to design an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for the transmutation of components of nuclear waste and develop related technology and knowledge.
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FIRST-Nuclides

First-Nuclides aimed to improve the understanding of the fast / instantly released radionuclides from disposed high burn-up UO2 spent nuclear fuel. The outcome of the project is relevant for all types of host rocks in Europe.
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FORGE

Long-term radioactive waste management usually considers final disposal in a deep geological repository. This includes an engineered barrier system working in conjunction with the surrounding host rocks to minimise migration of radioactivity. As the repository system evolves, gases may be produced, such as hydrogen from the corrosion of metals and from the radiolysis of water, and radon from the radioactive decay of some of the waste. If present, biodegradable wastes can also produce carbon dioxide and methane. Understanding how these gases move in a repository setting is a topic identified for further study. The FORGE project, which ran from February 2009 to September 2013, studied key gas migration issues in repository performance assessment.
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FUNMIG

FUNMIG (FUNdamental processes of radionuclide MIGration) was an Integrated Project (IP) that ran for four years and succeeded in its aim of improving understanding of the fundamental processes of radionuclide migration in rock.  The focus of the project was on rocks, radionuclides and processes relevant to the safety of deep underground nuclear waste repositories.
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FUTURE

FUTURE is an RD&D Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to quantify the long-term entrapment of key radionuclides in solid phases to inform reactive transport models and the influence of redox.
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GAS

GAS is an RD&D Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to increase understanding and predictability of gas migration in different host rocks.
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HITEC

HITEC is an RD&D Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to improve the THM (thermal, hydraulic and mechanical) description of clay-based materials at elevated temperatures.
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INSOTEC

INSOTEC was a three-year project specifically established to address the social and technical challenges of geological disposal. The project analysed data from 14 EU states to understand current radioactive waste management design and implementation capacity as well as to identify any gaps. The results of INSOTEC were intended to help guide governments and institutions in the implementation of radioactive waste management and could ultimately provide solutions to both specific and general challenges in the field.
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IPPA

IPPA was a three-year project which focused on the establishment of arenas in some central and eastern European countries where different stakeholders could move forward together to increase their understanding of the issues involved in radioactive waste disposal, and of their respective views.
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joprad

JOPRAD

Establishing a European Union funded Joint Programme is a step change in European collaboration towards safe radioactive waste disposal. The goal of the JOPRAD project was to prepare the conditions for the establishment of a Joint Programme on Radioactive Waste Disposal in 2018.
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LUCOEX

LUCOEX was a four-year project aimed at demonstrating in situ the technical feasibility for safe and reliable construction, manufacturing, disposal and repository sealing methods. LUCOEX examined four repository concepts – horizontal disposal of waste packages in Opalinus Clay; horizontal disposal of waste packages in Callovo-Oxfordian clay; horizontal disposal of waste packages in crystalline hard rock; and vertical disposal of waste packages in crystalline hard rock.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

MICADO

The MICADO project was established to assess the uncertainties in models that describe the dissolution processes of spent nuclear fuels in a disposal repository for geological time periods. The overall objective of the project was to establish whether international research had provided sufficiently reliable models to allow safety questions over disposal of spent fuels to be answered.
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MIND

MIND was a unique multidisciplinary project targeting the key technical issues involving microbial processes that must be addressed to facilitate safe implementation of planned geological disposal projects in the EU.
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MoDeRn

MoDeRn was a four year collaborative research project addressing how repository monitoring can contribute to the technical safety strategy and the implementation of geological disposal for long-lived radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, as well as contributing to public understanding of and confidence in repository behaviour.
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modern

Modern2020

Monitoring can play an important role in enabling waste management organisations to work towards the safe and accepted implementation of geological disposal. The objective of the Modern2020 project was to provide the means for developing and implementing an effective and efficient repository operational monitoring programme.
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NF-PRO

NF-PRO (Understanding and Physical and Numerical Modelling of the Key Processes in the Near-Field and their Coupling for Different Host Rocks and Repository Strategies) was an EU project to increase the understanding of the processes affecting radionuclide migration in the near-field of underground nuclear waste repositories.
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OBRA

OBRA was a coordination action financed by the European Commission that was carried out between November 2006 and October 2008. The purpose of OBRA was to assess the feasibility of creating an Observatory for long-term governance on radioactive waste management in Europe.
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PAMINA

The PAMINA project (Performance Assessment Methodologies in Application to Guide the Development of the Safety Case) aimed to improve and develop a common understanding of integrated performance assessment (PA) methodologies for disposal concepts for spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes in a range of geological environments. It was part of the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission. It brought together 25 organisations from ten European countries and one EC Joint Research Centre to improve and harmonise the methodologies and tools for demonstrating the safety of deep geological disposal.
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PEBS

PEBS aimed to evaluate the sealing and performance of the engineered barrier with time. The project involved experimentation and modelling, with consideration of the potential impacts on long-term safety functions.
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PETRUS II

The PETRUS II project was a three-year project which aimed to enable present and future professionals on radioactive waste management in Europe, whatever their initial disciplinary background, to follow a training programme on geological disposal which would be widely recognized across Europe. In addressing the needs of the end-users, access to a combination of education (formal), continuous learning and professional development (non-formal) was offered and developed within the project.
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European Geosciences Union 2018

PETRUS III

PETRUS III (Implementing sustainable education and training (E&T) programmes in the field of Radioactive Waste Disposal) was a three year project to develop E&T programmes to meet the needs of the European geological disposal community.  The project built on and continued the work pursued by the previous two PETRUS projects.  As the final project in the PETRUS initiative, there was focus on the sustainability of implemented programmes.  The project aimed to develop accredited and recognised qualifications in the field of geological disposal and to support continuing research and training at the PhD level.
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PLATENSO

The objective of PLATENSO was to provide a proposal towards establishing the legal base for a European Entity on Socio-Economic matters linked to nuclear technology and to develop recommendations for research strategies in PLATENSO countries. Through this, the capabilities of research institutes in Central and Eastern European countries to take part in EU research with respect to governance, social and societal aspects was enhanced.
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PREDIS

The European Commission PREDIS project targets the development and implementation of activities for pre-disposal treatment of radioactive waste streams other than nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It is intended that Member States will profit from measurable benefits including the further development and increase in Technological Readiness Level of treatment and conditioning methodologies for wastes for which no adequate or industrially mature solutions are currently available.
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ReCoSy

ReCosy was a four-year collaborative project under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) involving key European Research Institutes and Universities from 13 EURATOM signatory states, Russia and one European Joint Research Centre. The main objectives of ReCosy were to build a sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and to provide tools to apply the result to Performance Assessment/Safety Case.
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RED-IMPACT

The RED-IMPACT project (Impact of P&T and Waste Reduction Technologies on the Final Nuclear Waste Disposal) was a three and a half year EU project to assess the impacts of different partition and transmutation and other waste reduction technologies on the nuclear fuel cycle, with a focus on the effects on the final disposal of wastes.
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REDUPP

The REDUPP project used laboratory studies to investigate the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel under repository conditions.
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ROUTES

ROUTES is a Strategic Studies Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to share experience and knowledge on radioactive waste management (RWM) routes between Waste Management Organisations (WMOS), Regulatory Technical Support Organisations (TSOs) and Research Entities (REs) from different countries, with programmes at different stages of development, with different amounts and types of radioactive waste to manage.  
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SECIGD

The IGD-TP secretariat was established to manage the day to day running of the platform and support the executive group.
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SECIGD2

The IGD-TP secretariat was renewed for phase 2 to further support the work of the technical platform. This continued funding aimed to deepen collaboration and knowledge exchange between the waste management organisations and other stakeholders.
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SFC

SFC is an RD&D Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to reduce uncertainties in spent fuel properties in pre-disposal phase.
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SITEX-II

The co-ordination and support action SITEX-II was initiated in 2015 within the EC programme Horizon 2020 with a view to further developing the independent Expertise Function network in the field of deep geological disposal safety.
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SITEX logo

SITEX

SITEX was a two-year project that aimed to establish and develop expertise among technical safety experts, and through this, support independent regulatory reviews of geological disposal safety at national levels. Attention was also paid to harmonising the policies and programmes among regulatory authorities, technical support organisations and waste management organisations.
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SKIN

The SKIN Project was a 3-year collaborative project under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). It intended to assess the effect of surface properties on apparent solubility, as well as the kinetics of incorporation of radionuclides in the structure of a solid phase, and the associated reaction mechanisms for various solids in a systematic manner using isotope exchange under close-to-equilibrium conditions.
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theramin

THERAMIN

Thermal treatment can provide significant volume reduction, waste passivation and organics destruction for radioactive wastes, with benefits for waste storage and safety cases for geological disposal. The THERAMIN project aimed to provide improved understanding and optimisation of the application of thermal treatment to wastes. THERAMIN successfully demonstrated six technologies (SHIVA, In-Can Melter, GeoMelt®, thermal gasification, vitrification and hot isostatic pressing) with a range of waste groups, improved understanding of treated products and provided a better strategic understanding of relevant wastes and technologies.
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TIMODAZ

The TIMODAZ project was a four-year project investigating the thermal impact on the damaged zone around a radioactive waste disposal facility in clay host rocks.
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UMAN

UMANS is a Strategic Studies Work Package (WP) within EURAD. It aims to further refine methods of making sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, and develop a multi-actor network for uncertainty management.
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